## From Zero To State Of The Art NLP Part I - Attention mechanism

There has been some really amazing advances in natural language processing (NLP) in the last couple of years. Back in November 2018, Google released https://ai.googleblog.com/2018/11/open-sourcing-bert-state-of-art-pre.html, which is based on attention mechanisms in Attention Is All You Need. In this two part series, I will assume you know nothing about NLP, have some understanding about neural networks, and take you from the start to end of understanding how transformers work. Natural language processing is the art of using machine learning techniques in processing language. [Read More]

## Beating the odds: arbitrage in sports betting

In this post we are going to look at sports betting and how to make guarenteed money. Let’s take the example of football. For each match, there is a home team who hosts the match in their stadium and an away team. There are three outcomes to each match, home win (away lose), home lose (away win) and a draw. The bookie provides odds on each outcome. [Read More]

## Variational inference, the art of approximate sampling

In the spirit of looking at fancy word topics, this post is about variational inference. Suppose you granted me one super power and I chose the ability to sample from any distribution in a fast and accurate way. Now, you might think that’s a crappy super-power, but that basically enables me to fit any model I want and provide uncertainty estimates. To make the problem concrete, lets suppose you are trying to sample from a distribution $$p(x)$$. [Read More]

## Spike and slab: Bayesian linear regression with variable selection

Spike and slab is a Bayesian model for simultaneously picking features and doing linear regression. Spike and slab is a shrinkage method, much like ridge and lasso regression, in the sense that it shrinks the “weak” beta values from the regression towards zero. Don’t worry if you have never heard of any of those terms, we will explore all of these using Stan. If you don’t know anything about Bayesian statistics, you can read my introductory post before reading this one. [Read More]

## Bayesian analysis of Premier League football

In this post we are going to look at some football statistics. In particular, we will examine English football, the Premier League, using Bayesian statistics with Stan. If you have no idea what Bayesian statistics is, you can read my introductory post on it. Otherwise this post shouldn’t be a difficult read. All right, let’s get to it. First, we need some data. I will use all the matches from the Premier League seasons 16/17 and 17/18 (which is still ongoing at the time of the writing). [Read More]